Though the varieties of plants grown in flower gardens vary by country, the essential planning and concepts are nearly identical, whether the gardens are formal or informal. A well-designed flower garden relies heavily on trees and shrubs. The places for herbaceous plants, annuals, and bulbs are frequently created around these permanent features. There is a huge variety of flowering trees and shrubs. However, such plants must be appropriate for the regions they will occupy when fully grown. In a modest residential front garden 30 feet square, a forest tree that will grow 100 feet (30 metres) high and 50 feet broad is of little value, but a thin flowering cherry or redbud tree would be ideal.
Gardens in the woods
The informal forest garden is a natural successor of past periods’ shrubby “wilderness.” The woodland garden’s essence is informality and naturalness. Paths are made of mulch or grass rather than tarmac and curve rather than go straight. Trees are pruned to provide for adequate light, especially in glades, but irregular groups can be left, and any mature tree with character can serve as a focal point. Rhododendron, magnolia, pieris, and maple are among the trees and shrubs; lily, daffodil, and snowdrop are among the bulbs; primrose, hellebore, St. John’s-wort, epimedium, and many others are among the herbs.
The appearance of rock gardens is that they are a natural component of a rocky hillside or slope. If rocks are used, they are usually placed on their bigger edges, just like in natural layers. A few massive boulders are usually more attractive than a smattering of little rocks. Rocks are set in a well-designed rock garden to provide different exposures for sun-tolerant plants like rockroses and shade-tolerant species like primulas, which prefer a cool, north-facing face. Many tiny perennial plants are available for filling holes in vertical fissures amid the granite faces.
Sandstone and limestone are the most common rocks used to create rock gardens. Sandstone appears more calm and natural since it is less irregular and pitted, yet many plants, particularly most dianthuses, prefer limestone. Granite is typically thought to be too hard and inappropriate for rock gardens due to its sluggish weathering.
Gardening in the water
One of the oldest types of gardening is the water garden. Records and photographs of farmed water lilies date back to 2000 BCE in Egypt. For generations, the Japanese have created water gardens in their own unique and exquisite patterns. Many have a stone ornamental lantern in the centre, or a flat wisteria trellis canopy spreading over the water. Water gardens in Europe and North America range from formal pools with rectangular or circular shapes, sometimes with fountains in the centre, and often with no plants or only one or two water lilies (Nymphaea), to informal pools with irregular shapes planted with water lilies and other water plants and surrounded by boggy or damp soil where moisture-tolerant plants can be grown. To maintain the water pure and support any new fish, the pool must have appropriate oxygenating plants. Most water plants, especially giant water lilies, thrive in two to five feet of still water. Water lilies in the temperate zone bloom all day, whereas many tropical and subtropical varieties bloom exclusively in the evening.